The growing demands of quantum materials, engineering and technology make access to microkelvin temperatures ever more essential. Experience in Europe suggests that new working methods, encouraged by an imaginative funding atmosphere, can accelerate progress in this frontier field. The EMP comprises ~20 leading European ultralow-temperature academic physics and technology partners in Europe, eight of which provide access to milli- and microkelvin experimental facilities. The node in Basel, Zumbuhl group, is specialized in cooling nanoelectronic circuits using a parallel network of magnetic refrigerators, recently reaching 150 microK with the network of refrigerators, and reporting 2.8 mK in a Coulomb blockade thermometer, the lowest temperature reported to date in a nanoelectronic circuit.
Nature Materials Review by George Pickett, Lancaster, and Christian Enss, Heidelberg.